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City of Hartford

  •   State: 
    Hartford County
      County FIPS: 
    41°45′45″N 72°40′27″W
      Area total: 
    18.05 sq mi
      Area land: 
    17.38 sq mi (45.01 km²)
      Area water: 
    0.68 sq mi (1.75 km²)
    30 ft (9 m)
    Settled October 15, 1635 Named February 21, 1637; Incorporated (city) May 29, 1784 Consolidated April 1, 1896
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Hartford-East Hartford-Middletown, CT
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    6,965.1 residents per square mile of area (2,689.5/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Hartford is the capital city of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It was the seat of Hartford County until Connecticut disbanded county government in 1960. It is home to the country's oldest public art museum (Wadsworth Atheneum), the oldest publicly funded park (Bushnell Park), and the oldest continuously published newspaper (the Hartford Courant) It is also home to Mark Twain House, where the author wrote his most famous works and raised his family. Hartford was the richest city in the United States for several decades following the American Civil War. Today, it is one of the poorest cities in the US, with 3 out of every 10 families living below the poverty threshold. The city is the center of the Greater Hartford metropolitan area, which was ranked 32nd of 318 metropolitan areas in total economic production and 8th out of 280 metropolitan statistical areas in per capita income in 2015. Hartford coordinates certain Hartford-Springfield regional development matters through the Knowledge Corridor Economic Partnership. The etymology of Hartford is for "harts cross" or "deer crossing" The original settlement area contained the site of an old white oak tree, which provided the legal basis for Connecticut's separation from Massachusetts Bay Colony and the formation of a civil government in 1662. The name of the Dutch fort "House of Hope" is reflected in the name of Huyshope Avenue. The original site was located on the south bank of the Park River in the present-day Sheldon/Charter Oak neighborhood.


Hartford is the primary city name, but also West Hartford are acceptable city names or spellings, Hfd, Htfd on the other hand no longer accepted or obsolete and are no longer used as a designation. The official name is City of Hartford. The first Europeans known to have explored the area were the Dutch under Adriaen Block, who sailed up the Connecticut in 1614.Various tribes lived in or around Hartford, all Algonquian peoples. Puritan pastors Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone, along with Governor John Haynes, led 100 settlers with 130 head of cattle in a trek from Newtown in the Massachusetts Bay Colony (now Cambridge) and started their settlement just north of the Dutch fort. Hartford was a major manufacturing city from the 19th century until the mid-20th century. During the Industrial Revolution, Hartford produced many major manufacturing innovations. The city was a center of abolitionist activity, and the most famous abolitionist family was the Beechers. In 1860, Hartford was the site of the first "Widelight parades", organized by abolitionist supporters of Abraham Lincoln, that were both political and social events. Hartford is located on the banks of the Park River, which is a tributary of the Connecticut River. It is one of the oldest cities in the U.S. to be named after a city, having been named after Hartford, Connecticut, in the 17th century, when the city was still part of New England. It was also the first city in the United States to be known as a state, being named after the state's first governor, George W. Hartford, who was elected in 1788. It has been called the "capital city of Connecticut" since the 1800s, when it became the first state capital.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 18.0 square miles (47 km²) The city is bordered by the towns of West Hartford, Newington, Wethersfield, East Hartford, Bloomfield, South Windsor, Glastonbury, and Windsor. The highest officially recorded temperature is 103 °F (39 °C) on July 22, 2011, and the lowest is 26 °F on January 22, 1961. The average annual precipitation is approximately 47.05 inches (1,200 mm), which is distributed fairly evenly throughout the year. Hartford typically receives about 51.7 inches (131 cm) of snow in an average winterabout 40% more than coastal Connecticut cities like New Haven, Stamford, and New London. Tropical storms and hurricanes have also struck Hartford, although the occurrence of such systems is rare. Hartford saw extensive damage from the 1938 New England Hurricane, as well as with Hurricane Irene in 2011. The city's oldest and most ornate homes are located in the South End. The South End features "Little Italy" and was the home of Hartford's sizeable Italian community. The North Meadows has retail strips, car dealerships, and Comcast Theatre. The West End is renowned as the location of the Charter Oak and its successor, the University of Connecticut School of Law. Hartford is home to the Jamaican-American heritage community, claiming the largest per capita of residents in the United States in the Other Heritage category.


At the 2010 U.S. census, there were 124,775 people, 44,986 households, and 27,171 families residing in the city. At the American Community Survey's 2019 estimates, the population increased to 123,088. The 2020 United States census tabulated a population of 121,054. The city's Hispanic and Latin American populace primarily consisted of Puerto Ricans (33.63%), Dominicans (3.0%), Mexicans (1.6%), Cubans (0.4%) and other Hispanic or Latinos at 5.63%. At the 2010 census, the racial and ethnic makeup of the city was 29.8% white, 38.7% African American or Black, 0.6% Native American, 2.8%, Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 23.9% from other races, and 4.2% from two or more races. More than three-quarters (77%) of the Hispanic population was Puerto Rican (with more than half born on the island of Puerto Rico) and fully 33. 7% of all Hartford residents claimed Puerto Rican heritage. Among the non-Hispanic population, the largest ancestry group is people from Jamaica; in 2014, Hartford was home to an estimated 11,400 Jamaicans, as well as another 1,200 people who are simply identified as West Indian Americans. The white population is in the majority in only two census tracts: the downtown area and the far northwest. Many areas in the middle of the. city, in Asylum Hill, and in West End, have a significant white population.


Hartford is a center for medical care, research, and education. Insurance giant Aetna had its headquarters in Hartford before announcing a relocation to New York City in July 2017. Infosys announced that opening of a new technology innovation hub in Hartford, creating up to 1,000 jobs by 2022. Hartford has continued to attract technology companies including CGI Inc., Covr Financial Technologies, GalaxE Solutions, HCL Technologies and Larsen & Toubro. Local unemployment remains high in Hartford compared to other cities, the state, and the U.S. As a whole, Connecticut's unemployment rate remains above 5% while the national rate hovers just under 4%. The city is also home to the corporate headquarters of CareCentrix, Choice Merchant Solutions, Global Atlantic Financial Group, Hartford Healthcare, Insurity, LAZ Parking, ProPark Mobility, and Virtus Investment Partners. In 2008, Sovereign Bank consolidated two bank branches as well as its regional headquarters in a nineteenth-century palazzo on Asylum Street. Bank of America and People's United Financial have a significant corporate presence in Hartford. In 2009, Northeast Utilities, a Fortune 500 company and New England's largest energy utility, announced it would establish its corporate headquarters downtown. In March 2018, Infoys announced the opening of an innovation hub that will focus on three key sectors- insurance, healthcare and manufacturing. Hartford is home to a number of technology companies, such as CGI Inc. and Galaxe Solutions. The city also hosts the headquarters of insurance software provided Insurity.

Arts and culture

The first American cookbook was American Cookery, The Art of Dressing Viands, Fish, Poultry, and Vegetables by Amelia Simmons, published in Hartford by Hudson & Goodwin in 1796. The first half of the 20th century brought significant Polish immigration and a number of Polish restaurants, some of which still operate today. Food trucks are restricted to designated areas in the city, mostly along Bushnell Park in Downtown Hartford and at farmers' markets. The Connecticut River Valley is the most agriculturally productive region in New England and neighboring Wethersfield is renowned for its red onions. Hartford and the surrounding area have a vibrant craft beer, cider, and spirit industry, and there were more than two dozen breweries and distilleries in the Hartford area in 2017. The Hartford Regional Market is the largest market between New York City and Boston, leaving its future somewhat uncertain. The oldest historic site in Hartford is the Old State House Burying Ground, the city's first graveyard. Many of Hartford's renowned residents and founders are buried there. The Bulkeley Bridge is a stone-arch bridge spanning the Connecticut River and connecting the city of Hartford with East Hartford. The Aetna building on Farmington Avenue is the world's largest colonial revival building, crowned by a tall Georgian tower inspired by the old State House downtown. The First Church of Christ in Glory in Hartford was founded by Thomas Hooker in the 19th century and is also known as The First Congregational Church of Hartford.


The Hartford Wolf Pack of the American Hockey League plays ice hockey at the XL Center in downtown Hartford. The Hartford Yard Goats, the Double-A affiliate of the Colorado Rockies, moved from New Britain to Hartford in 2017. Hartford formerly had a National League baseball team, the Hartford Dark Blues, in the 1870s. The city was home to the NHL's Hartford Whalers from 1979 to 1997, before the team relocated to Raleigh, North Carolina and became the Carolina Hurricanes. Hartford is also home to a semi-pro soccer team, Hartford City FC, which currently plays in the NPSL. Hartford briefly had a team in the UFL called the Hartford Colonials, but games were played in neighboring East Hartford's Rentschler Field. From 2000 to 2006 Hartford was home. to the Hartford FoxForce of World TeamTennis. The team currently plays at Dunkin' Donuts Park. Hartford also had an NFL team, The Hartford Blues, for three seasons in the 1920s, but they were later sold to the Boston Celtics, who played home games at the TD Garden from 1975 to 1995. Hartford had a Major Indoor Soccer League (MISL) team, which played in the Hartford Hellions. The Hellions were one of four WHA teams that joined the NHL in 1979, and played at the Hartford XL Center from 1979 until 1997. Hartford has a UConn Huskies men's and women's basketball team that plays at the Gampel Pavilion on the university's campus in Storrs.


Hartford is governed via the strong-mayor form of the mayor-council system. The city council, formally known as the "Court of Common Council," has nine members. In Connecticut, there is no county-level executive or legislative government. Hartford is a predominantly Democratic city and has voted for every presidential candidate in the party since Al Smith in 1928. In 2016, the city voted for Clinton 90%8%, a slight shift from voting for Obama 93%6% in the previous election. In 2020, Joe Biden won the city's vote by a margin of 87%13%. The city is a "Sanctuary city", although the term itself does not have an established legal meaning. In 2008, Hartford passed an ordinance providing services to all residents regardless of their immigration in 2008. Said ordinance also prohibits police from detaining individuals based solely on their immigration status, or inquiring as to their immigrationstatus. In 2012, the ordinance was amended to declare that Hartford is the first city in the United States to do so, though it is not clear what the legal meaning of the term means. In 2014, Hartford voted to become a "sanctuary city" for all residents, although it has not been officially established as a legal term yet. Hartford voted in favor of restoring a mayor- council form in 2003, more than 50 years after establishing the council-manager form. The state abolished county government in 1960, and since then counties have served as little more than boundaries for the state's probate, civil, and criminal courts. Connecticut municipalities provide nearly all local services.


Hartford is served by the Hartford Public Schools. Hartford Public High School is the nation's second-oldest high school. The city's high school graduation rate reached 71 percent in 2013. Hartford is also home to Watkinson School, a private coeducational day school. Catholic schools are administered by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Hartford. The Learning Corridor is home to the Montessori Magnet School, Hartford Magnet Middle School, Greater Harford Academy of Math and Science, and the Greater Hartford Academy of the Arts. The University of Hartford features several cultural institutions: the Joseloff Gallery, the Renee Samuels Center and the Mort and Irma Handel Performing Arts center. The "U of H" campus is co-located in the city's Blue Hills neighborhood and in neighboring towns West Hartford and Bloomfield. The Hartford Seminary (in the West End) and Rensselaer at Hartford (a Downtown branch campus of Rensselsaer Polytechnic Institute) are also located in Hartford. Hartford has one of the highest percentages of high school grads in the state, according to the state Department of Education. It also has the highest percentage of college grads, in the University of Connecticut's Hartford campus. It is also the second-largest city in Connecticut, after New Haven. It has the third-highest rate of college graduate rates, after St. Joseph's University in Watertown and the College of St. Benedict in New York City.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut = 17.8. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 52. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 11. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Hartford = 3.3 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 5,522 individuals with a median age of 32.1 age the population grows by 0.52% in Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 6,965.1 residents per square mile of area (2,689.5/km²). There are average 2.6 people per household in the 44,874 households with an average household income of $28,869 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 14.40% of the available work force and has dropped -3.69% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 18.22%. The number of physicians in Hartford per 100,000 population = 291.3.


The annual rainfall in Hartford = 42.4 inches and the annual snowfall = 31.6 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 118. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 189. 83 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 18.3 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 51, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut which are owned by the occupant = 22.09%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 54 years with median home cost = $130,480 and home appreciation of -17.50%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $19.40 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $9,723 per student. There are 15.1 students for each teacher in the school, 532 students for each Librarian and 442 students for each Counselor. 3.80% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 7.27% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 5.28% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Hartford's population in Hartford County, Connecticut of 79,850 residents in 1930 has dropped 0,07-fold to 5,522 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 51.80% female residents and 48.20% male residents live in Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut.

    As of 2020 in Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut are married and the remaining 62.01% are single population.

  • 25.4 minutes is the average time that residents in Hartford require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    56.72% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 16.59% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 18.43% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 1.72% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut, 22.09% are owner-occupied homes, another 66.29% are rented apartments, and the remaining 11.62% are vacant.

  • The 54.99% of the population in Hartford, Hartford County, Connecticut who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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