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City of Cleveland

  •   State: 
    Cuyahoga County
      County FIPS: 
    41°28′56″N 81°40′11″W
      Area total: 
    82.49 sq mi
      Area land: 
    77.73 sq mi (201.33 km²)
      Area water: 
    4.75 sq mi (12.29 km²)
    653 ft (199 m)
    1796; Incorporated ( village ) December 23, 1814 ( 1814-12-23 ); Incorporated (city) March 5, 1836 ( 1836-03-05 )
  •   Latitude: 
      Dman name cbsa: 
    Cleveland-Elyria, OH
    Eastern Standard Time (EST) UTC-5:00; Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) UTC-4:00
      ZIP codes: 

    Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States

  •   Population: 
      Population density: 
    4,793.52 residents per square mile of area (1,850.78/km²)
      Household income: 
      Unemployment rate: 
  •   Sales taxes: 
      Income taxes: 

Cleveland was founded in 1796 near the mouth of the Cuyahoga River by General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city was named. Its location on both the river and the lake shore allowed it to grow into a major commercial and industrial center. The city anchors both the Greater Cleveland metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and the larger ClevelandAkronCanton combined statistical area. Cleveland is home to several major cultural institutions, including the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Cleveland Orchestra, Playhouse Square, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cleveland serves as the center of the Cleveland Metroparks nature reserve system. Its economy relies on diversified sectors such as manufacturing, financial services, healthcare, biomedicals, and higher education. The Greater Cleveland MSA was $135 billion in 2019, the largest in Ohio, accounting for 25% of the state's GDP. Cleveland served as an important center for the Union during the American Civil War, serving as a stop on the Underground Railroad for African American slaves en route to Canada. It was a major stop for the U.S. during the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812. It is the home to the Cleveland Browns and the Cleveland Cavaliers, the city's major league professional sports teams. Cleveland has a population of 372,624, making it the 54th-largest city in the United States, with a 2020 population of 3.63 million. It ranks as the most populous city in Ohio and the 17th largest in the country.


Cleveland is the primary city name, but also Bedford Heights, Bedford Hts, Garfield Heights, Garfield Hts, Highland Hills, Highland Hls, North Randall, Warrensville Heights, Warrensvl Hts are acceptable city names or spellings, Orange Village, Orange Vlg, Warrensville Hts on the other hand no longer accepted or obsolete and are no longer used as a designation. The official name is City of Cleveland. Cleveland was established on July 22, 1796, by surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company when they laid out Connecticut's Western Reserve into townships and a capital city. The emerging community served as an important supply post for the U.S. during the Battle of Lake Erie in the War of 1812. In 1836, Cleveland, then only on the eastern banks of the Cuyahoga River, was officially incorporated as a city. In 1870, John D. Rockefeller founded Standard Oil in Cleveland, which had become a center of finance and business. The city's economic growth and industrial jobs attracted large waves of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe as well as Ireland. Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population of Cleveland grew among the city's most prominent patrons. The Cleveland Museum of Art, which opened in 1916, and the Cleveland Orchestra, established in 1918, were among the most prominent cultural institutions in the city. By 1910, Cleveland had become known as the "Sixth City" due to its position as the sixth largest U.S. city at the time. The major Progressive Era leaders, most prominently the populist Mayor Tom L. Johnson, were responsible for the development of the Cleveland Mall Plan and the City Beautiful movement. The most prominent wealthy patrons of Cleveland saw wealthy patrons among them among them were the wealthy and well-to-do of New England. The first permanent European settler in Cleaveland was Lorenzo Carter, who built a cabin on the banks ofthe Cuyhoga River. The town's waterfront location gave it access to Great Lakes trade.


The shore of Lake Erie is 569 feet (173 m) above sea level. The city lies on a series of irregular bluffs lying roughly parallel to the lake. The Olmsted-inspired Cleveland Metroparks encircle Cleveland and Cuyahoga County. Cleveland's landmark ecclesiastical architecture includes the historic Old Stone Church in downtown Cleveland and the onion domed St. Theodosius Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Tremont. Cleveland is home to one of the largest collections of primates in North America, located in the Big Creek Valley, Big Creek Park, and Euclid Creek Reservation. It is also home to the Cleveland Zoo, which was established in 1882 and is the largest zoo of its kind in the U.S., with more than 2,000 animals. Cleveland has a total area of 82.47 square miles (213.60 km²), of which 77.70 sq miles (201.24 km²) is land and 4.77sq miles (12.35 km²] is water. It borders several inner-ring and streetcar suburbs, including Shaker Heights, Cleveland Heights, South Euclid, and East Cleveland. To the south, the city also borders Newburgh Heights, Cuyhoga Heights, and Brooklyn Heights and to the southeast, it borders Warrensville Heights, Maple Heights, and Garfield Heights. It also borders Linndale, Brooklyn, Parma, and Brook Park. In the late 1880s, writer Bayard Taylor described Euclid Avenue as "the most beautiful street in the world".


In the 19th and early 20th centuries, Cleveland saw a massive influx of immigrants from Ireland, Italy, and the Austro-Hungarian, German, Russian, and Ottoman empires. A 2020 analysis found Cleveland to be the most ethnically and racially diverse city in Ohio. Cleveland has a long-established Jewish community, historically centered on the East Side neighborhoods of Glenville and Kinsman, but now mostly concentrated in East Side suburbs such as Cleveland Heights and Beachwood. Cleveland's Latino community consists primarily of Puerto Ricans, who make up over 80% of the city's Hispanic/Latino population. The city's Asian community, centered on historical Asiatown, consists of Chinese, Koreans, Vietnamese, and other groups. Since 1946, the city has marked One World Day in the Cleveland Cultural Gardens in Rockefeller Park, celebrating all of its ethnic communities. In 2010, the median age in the city was 35.7 years, and 24.6% of residents were under the age of 18; 11% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 26.1% were from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64; and 12% were 65 years of age or older. According to the 2010 census, 29.7% of Cleveland households had children under the Age of 18 living with them, 22.4% were married couples living together, 25.3%. had a female householder with no husband present, 6.0% had a male householders with no wife present, and 46.4%. were non-families.


Cleveland and Cuyahoga County are home to the corporate headquarters of Fortune 500 companies Progressive, Sherwin-Williams, Parker-Hannifin, KeyCorp, and Travel Centers of America. The Cleveland Clinic is the largest private employer in the city of Cleveland and the state of Ohio, with a workforce of over 50,000 as of 2019. Cleveland is also noted in the fields of biotechnology and fuel cell research, led by Case Western Reserve University, the Cleveland Clinic, and University Hospitals of Cleveland. NASA maintains a facility in Cleveland, the Glenn Research Center. Jones Day, one of the largest law firms in the U.S., was founded in Cleveland in 1893. In 2005, the city appointed a "tech czar" to recruit technology companies to the downtown office market, offering connections to the high-speed fiber networks that run underneath downtown streets in several "high-tech offices" focused on Euclid Avenue. Cleveland State University hired a technology transfer officer to cultivate technology transfers from CSU research to marketable ideas and companies in the Cleveland area. Local observers have noted that the city is transitioning from a manufacturing-based economy to a health-tech-basedEconomy. The city is among the top recipients of investment for biotech start-ups and research. It is home to a number of major universities, including Ohio State University and the University of Akron. The Ohio and Erie Canal coupled with rail links helped the city become an important business center. Steel and many other manufactured goods emerged as leading industries.


The Cleveland Public Library is one of the largest public libraries in the nation with a collection of 10,559,651 materials in 2018. The Cleveland Metropolitan School District is the second-largest K12 district in the state of Ohio. Cleveland proper is home to several private and parochial schools, including Benedictine High School, Birchwood School, Cleveland Central Catholic High School and Montessori High School at University Circle. Cleveland State University (CSU), based in Downtown Cleveland, is the city's public four-year university. Cleveland's suburban universities and colleges include Baldwin Wallace University in Berea, John Carroll University in University Heights, Ursuline College in Pepper Pike, and Notre Dame College in South Euclid. Cuyahoga Community College, the county's two-year higher education institution, is also based in Cleveland. CWRU, a private university with several prominent graduate programs, was ranked 40th in the country in 2020 by U.S. News & World Report. The city is also home to the Cleveland Institute of Art and the ClevelandInstitute of Music, both of which are located in the University Circle area of the city. The mayor of Cleveland is the only person in Ohio under the direct control of the mayor, who appoints a school board. Approximately 1 square mile (2.6 km²) of Cleveland, adjacent the Shaker Square neighborhood, is part of Shaker Heights City School District. The area, which has been a part of the Shakers since the 1920s, permits these Cleveland residents to pay the same school taxes as Shaker residents.


Cleveland is home to Playhouse Square, the second largest performing arts center in the United States behind New York City's Lincoln Center. Karamu House is the oldest African American theater in the nation, established in 1915. The Cleveland Orchestra is widely considered one of the world's finest orchestras, and often referred to as the finest in the U.S. There is a significant hip hop music scene in Cleveland. In 1997, the Cleveland hip hop group Bone Thugs-n-Harmony won a Grammy for their song "Tha Crossroads" The city also has a history of polka music being popular both past and present, even having a subgenre called Cleveland-style polka named after the city. There are many major studio and independent films set in Cleveland, including the first American cinema, Samuel Brodsky and playwright Robert playwright Samuel R. H. Brodski. The first film shot in Cleveland was in 1897 by the company of Ohioan Thomas Edison, who became the center for film production for Hollywood before moving to New York. The city is the home of the Cleveland International Film Festival and the Cleveland State University Department of Theatre and Dance, DANCECleveland, the Great Lakes Theater Festival, and the Tri-C Jazz Fest. It is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra, Cleveland Youth Orchestra, the Contemporary Youth Symphony, and Cleveland Youth Wind Symphony. Cleveland has a long history of jazz, including Louis Armstrong, Cab Calloway, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Dizzy Gillespie, Benny Goodman, Billie Holiday, and Don Redman.


Cleveland's current major professional sports teams include the Cleveland Guardians (Major League Baseball), the Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and the Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association) Other professional teams in the city include and the. the Cleveland Monsters (American Hockey League), the. Cleveland Charge (NBA G League) The Cleveland Crunch (Major. League Indoor Soccer), Cleveland SC (National Premier Soccer League) Local sporting facilities include Progressive Field, FirstEnergy Stadium, Rocket Mortgage FieldHouse, the Wolstein Center, and the I-X Center. The headquarters of the Mid-American Conference (MAC) are in Cleveland. The Cleveland Marathon has been hosted annually since 1978. In 2014, Cleveland hosted the ninth official Gay Games ceremony. The U.S. Open Chess Championship took place in Cleveland in 1921 and 1957. In addition, a second American Chess Congress has taken place in the current Cleveland Congress. The city has also hosted several special events such as the World Chess Congress, which is held every two years. The first ever UFC World Championship fight held in Cleveland was held at UFC 203, the first ever World Championship boxing fight held on the West Side of the city. Cleveland has hosted the World Open Chess Championships in 1921, 1957, and 2010. Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Open, which was first held in 1921. It is also the home of the U.N. World Chess Championship, which has been held every four years since 1973. Cleveland also hosts the World Championship Chess Championship in the second year of the tournament.


Cleveland has been recognized by national media as an environmental success story. The Cuyahoga River had become so affected by industrial pollution that it "caught fire" a total of 13 times beginning in 1868. It was the river fire of June 1969 that spurred the city to action under Mayor Carl B. Stokes. In 2019, the American Rivers conservation association named the river "River of the Year" In addition to continued efforts to improve freshwater and air quality, Cleveland is now exploring renewable energy.. Its climate action plan, updated in December 2018, has a 2050 target of 100 percent renewable power, along with reduction of greenhouse gases to 80 percent below the 2010 level.. In recent years, Cleveland has also been working to address the issue of harmful algal blooms on Lake Erie, fed primarily by agricultural runoff, which have presented new environmental challenges for the city and for northern Ohio.. The city's two main electrical utilities are FirstEnergy and Cleveland Public Power, which are owned by Cleveland Electric and Cleveland Electric, respectively.. Cleveland Electric is a subsidiary of FirstEnergy, which is owned by the Cleveland Electric Company, which owns the Cleveland Power Company, and Cleveland Gas and Electric, which has a contract with the Cleveland Metropolitan Water Authority, among other utilities.. It is the second largest utility in the state, after Ohio Public Power. It has a fleet of more than 100,000 vehicles, including more than 1,000 watercraft. It also has a large number of small businesses, many of which are based in Cleveland.

Government and politics

Cleveland operates on a mayorcouncil (strong mayor) form of government, in which the mayor is the chief executive. The office of the mayor has been held by Justin Bibb since 2022. Previous mayors include progressive Democrat Tom L. Johnson, World War I-era War Secretary and BakerHostetler founder Newton D. Baker, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Harold Hitz Burton, two-term Ohio Governor and Senator Frank J. Lausche, and Carl B. Stokes. The legislative branch of Cleveland's city government is Cleveland City Council. The current Council President is Blaine Griffin, the council Majority Leader is Kerry McCormack, and the Majority Whip is Jasmin Santana. At the local level, elections are nonpartisan. However, Democrats still dominate every level of government. Cleveland is a major stronghold for the Democratic Party in Ohio. While other parts of the state, particularly western and southern Ohio, support the Republican Party, Cleveland commonly produces the strongest support in the state for the Democrats. Cleveland hosted three Republican national conventions in its history, in 1924, 1936, and 2016. The city also hosted the Radical Republican convention of 1864. It is one of the oldest continuous independent free speech and debate forums in the country. It has hosted several national election debates, including the second 1980 Presidential debate, one Democratic primary debate, and one 2020 Presidential debate. The City Club of Cleveland provides a platform for national debates and local debates and discussions. Cleveland has not hosted a national convention for Democrats, despite the position of Cuyahoga County as a Democratic stronghold Ohio.

Air Quality, Water Quality, Superfund Sites & UV Index

The Air Quality index is in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio = 23.2. These Air Quality index is based on annual reports from the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The number of ozone alert days is used as an indicator of air quality, as are the amounts of seven pollutants including particulates, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, lead, and volatile organic chemicals. The Water Quality Index is 30. A measure of the quality of an area’s water supply as rated by the EPA. Higher values are better (100=best). The EPA has a complex method of measuring the watershed quality, using 15 indicators such as pollutants, turbidity, sediments, and toxic discharges. The Superfund Sites Index is 41. Higher is better (100=best). Based upon the number and impact of EPA Superfund pollution sites in the county, including spending on the cleanup efforts. The UV Index in Cleveland = 3.7 and is a measure of an area's exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. This is most often a combination of sunny weather, altitude, and latitude. The UV Index has been defined by the WHO ( and is uniform worldwide.


The most recent city population of 82,823 individuals with a median age of 35.8 age the population dropped by -9.88% in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio population since 2000 and are distributed over a density of 4,793.52 residents per square mile of area (1,850.78/km²). There are average 2.4 people per household in the 173,299 households with an average household income of $29,958 a year. The unemployment rate in Alabama is 10.50% of the available work force and has dropped -3.77% over the most recent 12-month period and the projected change in job supply over the next decade based on migration patterns, economic growth, and other factors will increase by 21.96%. The number of physicians in Cleveland per 100,000 population = 389.1.


The annual rainfall in Cleveland = 37.2 inches and the annual snowfall = 57.7 inches. The annual number of days with measurable precipitation (over .01 inch) = 156. The average number of days per year that are predominantly sunny = 166. 83 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily high temperature for the month of July and 19.4 degrees Fahrenheit is the average daily low temperature for the month of January. The Comfort Index (higher=better) is 50, where higher values mean a more pleasant climate. The Comfort Index measure recognizes that humidity by itself isn't the problem. (Have you noticed nobody ever complains about the weather being 'cold and humid?) It's in the summertime that we notice the humidity the most, when it's hot and muggy. Our Comfort Index uses a combination of afternoon summer temperature and humidity to closely predict the effect that the humidity will have on people.

Median Home Cost

The percentage of housing units in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio which are owned by the occupant = 38.99%. A housing unit is a house, apartment, mobile home, or room occupied as separate living quarters. The average age of homes = 66 years with median home cost = $59,600 and home appreciation of -4.51%. This is the value of the years most recent home sales data. Its important to note that this is not the average (or arithmetic mean). The median home price is the middle value when you arrange all the sales prices of homes from lowest to highest. This is a better indicator than the average, because the median is not changed as much by a few unusually high or low values. The property tax rate of $15.40 shown here is the rate per $1,000 of home value. If for simplification for example the tax rate is $14.00 and the home value is $250,000, the property tax would be $14.00 x ($250,000/1000), or $3500. This is the 'effective' tax rate.


The local school district spends $8,393 per student. There are 12.2 students for each teacher in the school, 588 students for each Librarian and 658 students for each Counselor. 4.31% of the area’s population over the age of 25 with an Associate Degree or other 2-year college degree, 7.79% with a master’s degree, Ph.D. or other advanced college degree and 4.00% with high school diplomas or high school equivalency degrees (GEDs).

  • Cleveland's population in Cuyahoga County, Ohio of 21,316 residents in 1900 has increased 3,89-fold to 82,823 residents after 120 years, according to the official 2020 census.

    Approximately 52.25% female residents and 47.75% male residents live in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio.

    As of 2020 in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio are married and the remaining 61.59% are single population.

  • 27.4 minutes is the average time that residents in Cleveland require for a one-way commute to work. A long commute can have different effects on health. A Gallup poll in the US found that in terms of mental health, long haul commuters are up to 12 percent more likely to experience worry, and ten percent less likely to feel well rested. The Gallup poll also found that of people who commute 61­–90 minutes each day, a whopping one third complained of neck and back pain, compared to less than a quarter of people who only spend ten minutes getting to work.

    67.25% of the working population which commute to work alone in their car, 13.36% of the working population which commutes to work in a carpool, 11.88% of the population that commutes using mass transit, including bus, light rail, subway, and ferry. 1.65% of the population that has their home as their principal place of work.

  • Of the total residential buildings in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, 38.99% are owner-occupied homes, another 41.55% are rented apartments, and the remaining 19.47% are vacant.

  • The 54.98% of the population in Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, Ohio who identify themselves as belonging to a religion are distributed among the following most diverse religions.

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